What the History of Education Has Not Taught Us (ECL)

ix: Despite the then existing belief that education did not lend itself to any kind of scientific analysis “education became a subject of university study at the end of the nineteenth century”

x: In talking about educational research: “Why has this domain of scholarly work always been regarded as something of a step-child, reluctantly tolerated at the margins of academe and rarely trusted by policy makers, practitioners, or members of the public at large?”

x-xi: “Once it was established within the university, the study of education took a new turn, a turn toward “science”.” , excessive quantification and “scientism”

xii: “It is hardly a secret that people who study and practice education are engaged in low-status work”

xii: “low status has undermined possibilities for developing a strong professional community and generative scholarly traditions”

xii: “Antieducationism also encompasses assumptions concerning the lack of knowledge, skill, ambition, and competence needed and possessed by educators-to paraphrase George Bernard Shaw, “he or she who can, does; he or she who cannot, teaches.”

xiii: “Antieducationism thus allows one to believe that excellence can be achieved in and through education even when investments in personnel, research, materials, and equipment are limited.”

4: Professional Education for Teachers: “in the 1820’s teaching became increasingly associated with a specialized form of work, and institutions offering teachers special training began to appear.”

7: in the latter half of the nineteenth century normal schools emerged as the primary institution of professional education for teachers

9: the job market for teachers increased due to the development of high schools

9: the research university came into existence at about the same time. “With these powerful and deliberate leaders at the helm, universities quickly assumed managerial roles in the development and dissemination of knowledge and in the professionalization of many different fields of service and their associated and their associated knowledge domains. It was as part of that, that universities moved increasingly to establish schools and departments of education within their own precincts.”

10: “there were more than 200 colleges or universities offering teacher preparation by 1894-95″

10:”It makes more sense to read it as evidence of university aspirations to corner new markets and, even more, to assume a regulatory role that would ensure university leadership of the full panoply of educational institutions within a particular city, state, or region-or even nationwide.”

10: “Conflict and competition resulted from the ambition shared by many university leaders to organize the nation’s multitude of schools and colleges into a more coherent, pyramid-like hierarchy with universities at the top.”

11: “even though only a very small fraction of its graduates actually went on to college, college preparation should be the common controlling purpose of the high school. This would help ensure college and university oversight of high school curricula, which was initially exercised through faculty accreditation visits and then increasingly through regional accrediting associations…”

16: “between roughly 1890 and 1920, education research emerged as an empirical, professional science, built primarily around behaviorist psychology┬á and the techniques and ideology of quantitative measurements. Inevitably, as this approach gained acceptance, other approaches to the study of education-most important, the approach developed by John Dewey at the University of Chicago between 1894 and 1904-were pushed to the margins.”

19: “The sources of educational science are any portions of ascertained knowledge that enter into the heart, head, and hands of educators, and which, by entering in, render the performance of the educational function more enlightened, more humane, more truly educational than it was before.” – John Dewey

20: “Inspired with the zeal of missionaries, the first generations of scholars of education had been extraordinarily successful in developing a knowledge base for the school leaders they wished to counsel. In the process, they had invented educational psychology, educational testing, educational administration, the history of education, and what were called general and special (teaching) methods…”

20: early educationists “set out to create order and standards in a previously local and non-standardized domain of public concern” and were very successful. “Among other things, increasing bureaucracy in the public schools testified to that.”

24: “At issue, though unstated, was the primacy of psychology, rather than philosophy, in the study of education.”

24: “home life had shriveled, city children were left to the street…school life and work were mechanical, and mass methods that ignored individuality and even child nature were everywhere prevalent.”

26: child study became important: “all now agree that the mind can learn only what is related to other things learned before, and that we must start from the knowledge the children really have and develop this as germs.”

26: “The teacher must know two things: (1) the subject matter to be taught, and (2) the nature and capacity of the minds to which it is to be rooted.”